String Theory (An Overview)
String theory is a well-known theory for science majors. Every Physics student has to face the effectiveness of string theory in his/her life. Many of you may have an overview about string theory, but, this article this article is written to give you a deep understanding!
String theory states that everything in our universe is made up of tiny strings (branes), vibrating at different frequencies. Every string has length of 1.62*10^-35 m, which is the planck length. There are five types of mainstream string theories, they are, Type 1, Type 2 A, Type 2 b, Heterotic E8*E8 , Heterotic S(O(32)) . These five are modern types, derived from bosonic string theory.
String theory is based on two types of strings, open and closed strings and, string theory states that our universe has extra dimensions other than 4. In bosonic string theory, space-time is 26 dimensional, meanwhile in superstring theory it’s 11 dimensional, in M-Theory it’s 10 dimensional. It’s both a bug and feature in our theory.
Many theorists states, that string theory is not applicable in experimentation. It needs a particle collider with the diameter of our whole solar system to observe strings. It’s not possible with our economical conditions. Physicists assume that our observable universe is 4 dimensional subspace of a higher dimensional space. String theory is appointed as a leading candidate in TOE (Theory of everything) and GUT (Grand unified theory).
String theory unifies Gravity and other three fundamental forces with extra dimensions. String theory replaces point like particles with strings. The Tension in the string is on the order of 10^44 newtons. Brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions. In dimension p, these are called as P branes. P branes sweeps out a (p+1) dimensional volume in space-time called its world volume. String theory plays an important role in Quantum Field Theory. It emerges as one of the important postulates for Quantum Gravity and Quantum Fluctuations. There’s also a theory that states that our universe is made up of a single brane, when these branes collide it will result in big bang. Anti de sitter space is one of the leading models in string theory. Higher order string theory is known as Super String theory.
Super string Theory is one of the hot and leading topics in theoretical physics. It’s best known for its compactification of 10 dimensions. It’s one of the leading theories used in black-hole, physics and cosmology. But equations of this theory is very hard if you didn’t understand the true nature of branes.
It uses Quartic Integrals and SO(16) lie group, and appears to replace standard model if it proven correct! I presented you a series solution, which is convergent when ‘a’ is non zero and negative: